The thyroid tissue is formed by two types of cells: follicular cells and parafollicular cells. Most of the thyroid tissue consists of follicular cells. These cells secrete hormones that contain iodine.
The hormones are called thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Parafollicular cells secrete the hormone calcitonin. The thyroid needs iodine to make hormones. The thyroid plays an important role in regulating the body’s calcium balance and metabolism. It also plays a role in fertility, growth, and skin health. The hormones T4 and T3 communicate to all tissues in the body to make proteins. T4 and T3 also increase the amount of oxygen used by cells. The harder the cells work, the harder the organs will work. The hormone calcitonin works together with parathyroid hormone to regulate calcium levels in the body.
The levels of hormones secreted by the thyroid are controlled by a hormone produced by the pituitary gland. This hormone is in turn controlled by the hypothalamus. The most common diseases linked to the Thyroid Gland are Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism, neglecting symptoms can lead to Thyroid cancer.
Thyroid cancer occurs when thyroid cells change and multiply, and the cancer cells form nodules and growths. If left untreated, these cancerous nodules can spread to the lymph nodes, surrounding tissues, and the bloodstream, hence the importance of prevention when there is a genetic tendency or the first symptoms of organic disorders on the functions appear on this notably important gland.